Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (Amf) A Key Component of the Symbiotic Soil Microbial Populations - A Critical Study | Original Article
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are one of the most important microbial symbionts in the roots of maximum plants on the Earth. Commonly, AMF are non-host specific and have symbiotic interactions with different plants species. But some AMF species at certain combinations with host’s plant species have shown some host specificity. The beneficial interactions of AMF with plants growth result in the improvement of plant health and soil fertility. Under stress conditions of plants and especially in phosphate-imitated condition, AMF can influence plant community development, nutrient uptake, water relations and aboveground productivity. They can also act as bio protectants against pathogens and toxic stresses. AMF have different types of interactions with different kinds of rhizosphere microorganisms, particularly with rhizospheric bacteria that exhibiting some specific characteristics and functions in associations of them. These interactions may result in spore formation and germination through root colonization to external hyphae during AMF life cycle. The nature of these bacteria-fungal interactions may be inhibitory or stimulatory, competitive or mutualistic to each other or for the plant. In nature, the plant species impact on the selection of their bacterial associates and strongly influence the composition of AMF community. Indirectly AMF species also influence on the selection of bacteria in the mycorrhizosphere. Several kinds of bacterial species have been studied that are present in plant-AMF mycorhizosphere, but bacteria associated with AMF spores (AMB) with different interaction are not well studied yet. These AMB may be involved in the biocontrol of plant pathogens and to improve supply of nutrients. The knowledge of interactions between plant AMF, AMB and plant pathogens have been found helpful for the development of sustainable management of soil fertility and to increase crop production.